Appendix B: Video Transcripts

NOTICE: Machine captions are not 100% accurate.

1.2 Transactional Communication

[00:00] This presentation will review transactional communication. This is one model of how communication occurs. Essentially what does it look like when we talk to one another if I was to try [00:10] to draw it out on paper what is the communication process look like and it doesn’t matter whether you’re talking to a friend one-on-one or you’re giving a public speech. The drawing the [00:20] model is essentially the same. But first of all, what is communication in general? And my favorite definition of communication of every textbook probably has their own is from one of the [00:30] founding fathers of communication and he says, “Who, says what, to whom, and what channel, with what effect.” And that’s [00:40] essentially what happens who’s talking to you how are they saying it and what actually happens what’s the result or the outcome which is the whole purpose of communication we hope to affect other [00:50] people around us Howard Laswell as I said is one of the founding fathers of communication which communication is an interesting it’s [01:00] really more of a recent academic field obviously it’s been studied since the times of the Greeks and Romans but in colleges and universities modern day it really didn’t come around till after World War Two a bunch of different [01:10] academic disciplines came together during World War two to help with creating enemy propaganda campaigns to get local Americans to do things like [01:20]starting Victory Gardens or recycling materials and all of these scholars as they came together and looked at ways of persuasion and they created a new [01:30] discipline in the process of it so that’s where communications really started becoming more prominent in colleges and universities the model that Transaction Model [01:40] we’re going to talk about today is just the transactional model there are several other action models linear models but we’re not going to cover those I’m just going to stick to this one and the perspectives have changed [01:50] across time if you do look at them the action model is how they first drew communications they had problems with it they moved on to another model finally [02:00] we have a transactional model let me talk about the pieces of the model first of all you have your source source is the sender they send the message now a [02:10] source has a job you as a speaker have a job encoding kneading into the message you ncod encoding meaning and basically what [02:20] that means is I have something I want to say and I want to say it just such a way that you understand it just how I want you to understand it but that is so much [02:30] easier said than done first of all we like to say in communications that perfect communication is never possible remember we’re all unique individuals I have a different set of life experiences [02:40] than you do and for me to translate what’s in my brain and imprint it on your brain just how it’s online it’s just not going to happen I can do a [02:50] pretty good job of it and I can communicate it as best as I can so that it’s clear to you but nonetheless encoding is a difficult process and that’s where you’re really trying to [03:00] make things snap make things doesn’t make your communications effective as possible the message is actually what you say and it may not be a verbal message it could also be a nonverbal [03:10] message in fact a large part of meaning of how we communicate is nonverbal versus reading channel is how I [03:20] communicate that message what medium do I use to communicate it is it a voicemail is it a text message on speaking to somebody face to face the [03:30] channel does affect how we understand the message if you’ve listened to a song on the radio versus listening to the song at the live concert you know that the live venue is a lot different than [03:40] it is on the radio let’s say I’m walking down the hall one day and one of my co-workers says hey you’re looking really nice today I would say thank you I think it was a nice compliment and [03:50] really not take too much of it but let’s say the same person sent me a text message and said hey you look really nice today okay suddenly that compliment has gone from a nice compliment to kind of creepy so the [04:00] channel does make a difference in how we perceive the messages the receiver is the person receiving the message and okay remember the source had to encode [04:10] meaning into the message now the receiver has the job of decoding from the message so they have to figure out what they mean by that and a lot of what [04:20] we studying communications is the encoding and the decoding process finally we have noise and noise or all the different things that can possibly [04:30] get in way get in the way of that message being communicated as clearly as possible there’s four basic types of noise I’d like to address first you have physiological noise maybe I have a [04:40] hearing problem I don’t hear very well I have to use a hearing aid and I have difficulty hearing or maybe I have an awful migraine headache I have just that [04:50] roaring in my head and my ears and it’s totally getting in the way of me hearing so that would be physiological you can also have psychological noise and psychological noise would be oh say I [05:00] had a big fight with my boyfriend this morning really upset about it and I just can’t concentrate in class because I’m too sad and upset about this fine I just [05:10] had that would be psychological noise you could have physical noise somebody’s working on the roof there’s a bulldozer outside your window you have static on [05:20] your cell phone there’s physical little boys getting in the way of you hearing the message finally we have semantic noise sen and TI see semantic and [05:30] semantic noise are the words themselves maybe I’m using really hard to understand what’s like semantic or maybe I’m let’s say I’m given a lecture a [05:40] glass and one day I just start guessing the storm you would be like Lotus Davis and really just say that and it would probably interfere with what I said for [05:50] the next five minutes because you were still so shocked about me saying that that would also be semantic noise so those are the basic elements of the communication model now let me show you [06:00] an actual transactional model itself here’s what it looks like now notice our source and our receiver on either end those are the same person [06:10] and the reason that is is because this is a synchronized process if I’m sitting there talking to you you’re probably looking at me and nodding and [06:20] occasionally talking back to me but it’s happening at the same time I’m talking to you so you’re sending a [06:30] message back to me well I’m sending a message to you it’s all going on at the same time feedback is normally the receiver sending sit back to the source but it’s really [06:40] all the same thing so the message and the feedback are the source and receiver simultaneously communicating with one another we’ve got the channel down there [06:50] sometimes it’s called code but the channel again the medium that that message is being communicated and one more thing has been added here up at the very top of that model context the [07:00] context is the greater situation in which this communication is taking place in as well as the relationship between the individuals I’m at work and on any [07:10] meeting with my boss we have a pretty good relationship but it’s a maze of being meaning so I’m going to be serious and talk to them and be a professional [07:20] good professional employee then maybe afterwards I’m innocent in my boss’s office and chitchat and could laugh about a few things and maybe talk about some things [07:30] in the meeting more candidly than I would have in the meeting itself and then maybe my boss and I go out for drinks on a Friday night after work and it’s a whole different setting and it’s [07:40] a whole different kind of conversation that’s going to take place at the happy hour than in the business meeting so the same person depending on the context can [07:50] have different things or let’s say I had a fight with my boss I was really upset about a decision they made and I don’t like it and so there’s kind of this tense air over the relationship that’s [08:00] also part of the context and that’s certainly going to affect my next interaction with that person it might get smoothed over eventually but at least temporarily that’s part of the context so context is the location [08:10] as well as the relationship between the people involved you’ve still also got the noise getting in the way all throughout this whole communication process so this is the [08:20] should have had this up there this is the transactional communication process and the main things I want you to know about this are that first of all that message and feedback is going on at the [08:30] same time it’s all one in the same the source and the receiver the same person and communication again is really dynamic it is not just a sequential [08:40] process but it’s all going on at the same time so I hope this has been helpful in helping you understand the transactional communication process thank you very much.

[Return to Video 1.2]

1.4 How Effective Communication Can Save Lives in the Healthcare Setting

Introduction [00:02] How effective communication can save [00:04] lives in the healthcare settings [00:07] illness acute or chronic or injuries [00:11] can interrupt life dramatically the rise [00:14] and fall of emotions in action to an [00:16] illness injury or surgery can create [00:20] instability [00:21] numbness and a sense of hopelessness [00:24] for example a cancer diagnosis can take [00:27] a person through dozens of emotions in a [00:29] single [00:30] minute fear of the unknown loss of [00:33] control [00:33] confusion grief anger depression [00:37] and anxiety can hit hard who will be [00:40] there to help this person during this [00:42] surreal and scary time [00:44] the healthcare professional hence as a [00:47] healthcare professional [00:49] your communication skills need to be [00:51] stellar and a top [00:52] priority good communication skills are [00:55] required by all health care [00:57] professionals [00:58] not just by the social workers and [01:00] psychologists [01:02] active listening responding [01:04] appropriately to patients needs and [01:06]] concerns [01:07] properly assessing body language and [01:09] possessing a non-judgmental attitude [01:12] are all necessary skills that healthcare [01:14] workers need to possess [01:16] the importance of communication in the [01:19] healthcare industry can help [01:20] prevent injuries and death increase [01:23] trust between the patient and the [01:24] caregiver [01:25] and strengthen relationships with other [01:27] staff members [01:29] this video will discuss how [01:30] communication can save lives in health [01:33] care and [01:33] increase success on the job when working Importance of Communication [01:37] with patients and family members [01:40] as a health care professional it is [01:42] important to put your work self aside [01:45] and remember you are working with a real [01:47] person going through real [01:49] challenges rapport and trust can be [01:52] built if you show empathy [01:54] compassion and understanding with a [01:56] non-judgmental approach [01:58] this will help minimize or avoid [02:00] altogether [02:01] miscommunication mistrust and [02:04] unnecessary injuries and help you [02:06] determine what needs the patient [02:08] has family members also need the same [02:11] approach [02:12] simple communication is very important [02:15] leave out the shop talk unless [02:18] absolutely necessary [02:19] and then be prepared to explain any [02:21] terms or procedures that may be [02:23] difficult to understand without talking [02:26] down to the patient [02:27] and family members take it slow and have [02:30] patience [02:32] imagine yourself or your loved one going [02:34] through the same thing [02:36] this will increase your empathy greatly [02:39] at the opposite end of the spectrum do [02:41] not leave the patient [02:42] or family members in the dark about the [02:44] situation [02:46] this can cause anxiety to skyrocket and [02:49] tempers to flare [02:51] best practices to implement Plan for Different Personality [02:54] 1. plan for different personalities [02:58] we are all unique and so are your [03:00] patients [03:02] you will come in contact with a wide [03:03] array of personalities in your health [03:05] care career [03:07] the pleasant people are the easiest to [03:09] deal with [03:10] it is the more difficult personalities [03:13] that will test your patients [03:15] be careful not to react or respond [03:17] harshly [03:18] they still need empathy understanding [03:21] and [03:21] care even if they don’t act like they do [03:24] or aren’t responding positively to your [03:26] attempts [03:27] your kindness may be the brightest spot [03:30] in their day 2. Be Empathetic [03:32] be empathetic empathy requires [03:35] sincerity it requires connection with [03:39] your patients [03:40] it also requires facial expressions that [03:43] show concern [03:44] soothing kindness and patience [03:48] your patients will see through fake [03:50] gestures and will know when you are not [03:52] extending through care [03:54] empathy is the ability to walk in your [03:56] patients shoes and show that you do not [03:58] judge them [03:58] and are willing to go deeper 3. Active Listening Skills [04:02] use active listening skills [04:05] active listening requires that you not [04:07] only use your ears [04:09] but the ears of your heart and mind when [04:12] you listen actively [04:13] you can tune into patient needs and cues [04:16] words [04:17] and emotions that indicate distress [04:19] depression [04:20] and other highly charged emotions listen [04:24] more talk less ask open-ended questions [04:28] and be careful not to interrupt your [04:30] patience [04:31] and watch your body language be sure [04:34] your body stance is not guarded [04:36] defensive or uninterested. Take Notes [04:39] 4. take notes [04:42] there is nothing worse than forgetting [04:44] important information because it was not [04:46] written down [04:48] this can be detrimental in a healthcare [04:50] setting [04:51] take clear and concise notes if using a [04:55] computerized system [04:57] remember that everyone involved will be [04:59] reading your notes [05:00] so use it as a place to communicate with [05:02] others and keep them apprised of [05:04] individual situations [05:07] detailed notes about medication symptoms [05:10] procedures dietary needs and [05:13] psychosocial needs are vital in [05:15] healthcare [05:16] do not trust your memory even if it is [05:19] sharp Be Direct [05:20] 5. be direct clear and open [05:25] be open direct and candid about all [05:28] things involving your patients [05:30] their family members and caregivers [05:33] seal up any cracks in communication and [05:35] do not leave anything to chance or [05:37] guesswork [05:39] transparency should be a focus of [05:41] communication models among employees and [05:43] in employee-patient relationships [05:47] healthy and strong communication in the [05:49] healthcare industry is key to the [05:51] successful [05:52] running of daily operations no matter [05:54] what role you play [05:56] every person is important in the [05:58] healthcare field and every person is [06:00] responsible for possessing strong [06:02] communication skills [06:04] open and direct communication can save [06:07] the day or a life [06:10] for more videos like this subscribe to [06:12] our YouTube channel [06:14] talent and skills hub enabling [06:16] environment for actualization of [06:18] passions and ambitions [06:20] also remember to share this video with [06:22] others to help them [06:23] learn how effective communication can [06:26] save lives in the healthcare settings.

[Return to Video 1.4]

2.2 Perceiving is Believing: Crash Course Psychology #7

[00:00] Every rose has its thorn. Only the good die young. Slow and steady wins the race. [00:05] And what you see is what you get. Except that in [00:08] reality, several varieties of roses do not have thorns; [00:12] both the good and the bad, on occasion, tragically die young; fast and steady beats slow and steady [00:17] every time; and what you see is, well… Our perception, or how we order the cacophonous [00:24] chaos of our environment, is heavily influenced, biased even, by our expectations, experiences, [00:31] moods, and even cultural norms. And we can be pretty good at fooling ourselves. In the last two [00:36] lessons, we’ve learned how we see shapes and colors, hear sounds, and smell and taste the [00:42] world’s chemical concoctions, but our senses [00:44] mean little without our brain’s ability to organize [00:47] and translate that data into meaningful perceptions. [00:51] Without perception, your mother’s face is just a [00:53] combination of shapes. Without the ability to interpret scent, we couldn’t differentiate the [00:58] smell of toast from a grease fire. Our perception is the process that allows us to make meaning [01:03] out of our senses and experience the world around us. it’s what makes life understandable, Perception: Your Mind’s Eye [01:08] but also it means that sometimes what you see is not actually what you get. [01:12] [INTRO MUSIC] [01:22] So that was awesome, right? Upside-down, I look like me. Right-side-up, I look like some [01:27] kind of terrifying monster. Your brain isn’t used to upside-down faces, so it’s basically [01:31] just doing its best to put the pieces together. But it knows exactly what a right-side-up face [01:35] should look like, and that is not it. Just one of thousands of examples proving that your brain [01:41] does all the work of perception, and your eyes really are just feeding raw data. It’s important [01:47] data, but it isn’t actually what we see. What we see is the realm of the mind, not the eye. Perceptual Set [01:53] What kind of bird do you see right now? A duck, right? But if I said, “What kind of mammal do you [01:58] see?” a bunny probably would have popped out at you. Now, you should be seeing both of them [02:02] popping back and forth, but likely your brain wants to perceive the image related to [02:06] whichever cue you first heard, or whichever image is more familiar to you. By cueing [02:11] “mammal” or “bird,” I influenced your expectations and you saw what I wanted you to see. Pretty cool! [02:18] Your expectations are just one factor in your perceptual set: the psychological factors that [02:23] determine how you perceive your environment. Sometimes, seeing is believing, but perceptual [02:28] set theory teaches us that believing is also seeing. Context is another factor in your [02:32] perceptual set. If the duck bunny thing was pictured with Easter eggs all around it, [02:36] you’d think bunny right away — which is kind of weird, considering that of ducks [02:40] and bunnies, one is actually much more likely to be near an egg (it’s not the bunny). [02:45] And that’s an example of how culture is also an important part of our perceptual set. [02:49] As much as our perceptions are affected by context and expectations, they’re also [02:53] swayed by our emotions and motivations. People will say a hill is more steep if they’re [02:58] listening to emo by themselves than if they’re listening to power pop and walking with a friend. [03:02] Most of the time, your personal perceptual set leads you to reasonable conclusions, but sets [03:07] can also be misleading or even harmful. They’re [03:10] the basis of tons of entertaining optical illusions. [03:12] These two tables, for example, are the same size, Optical Illusions [03:15] but the positions of their legs make that impossible [03:18] for you to believe until I  lay them over each other. [03:20] And while all the fooling of our visual perception [03:22] can be fun, it also helps us understand how it works. [03:25] Our minds are given a tremendous amount of [03:28] information, especially through the eyes, and we need [03:31] to make quick work of it. Turning marks on a paper [03:34] into words; blobby lumps into the face of a friend; [03:37] seeing depth, color, movement, and contrast; [03:40] being able to pick out an object from all the other [03:42] clutter around it seems so simple, but we’ve come Form Perception & Figure-Ground Relationships [03:45] to discover that it is quite complicated. So complicated [03:48] that we have a name for it:  form perception. Take a neat [03:51] little dynamic called the  “figure-ground relationship.” [03:53] It’s how we organize and simplify whatever scene [03:56] we’re looking at into the main objects or figures and the surroundings or ground that they stand [04:01] out against. The classic “faces or vases” illusion is an example. Is it two faces against a white [04:06] background, or a vase against a black background? [04:08] If you look long enough, you’ll see that the relationship [04:10] between the object and its surroundings flip back and forth, continually reversing, sometimes white [04:15] is the figure and black is the ground. That figure-ground [04:18] dynamic, though, is always there. The concept applies [04:21] to non-visual fields as well. Say you’re at a party, [04:24] holding up the wall and creeping on your crush [04:26] across the room, trying to casually listen in on what [04:28] they’re saying. As the focus of your attention, that voice [04:31] becomes the figure, while all the other voices jabbering [04:34] about sports and beer pong and Sherlock and everything [04:36] that doesn’t have to do with that one beautiful person [04:39] all becomes the ground. Now that your mind has [04:41] distinguished figure from ground, it has to perceive [04:43] that form as something meaningful. Like for one, [04:46] that large shape on the couch is a person, and [04:48] further, that person isn’t just any person, but the [04:51] specific unique person of your dreams. One way our minds shuffle all of these stimuli into Rules of Grouping: Proximity, Continuity, & Closure [04:55] something coherent is by following rules of grouping, [04:58] like organizing things by proximity, continuity, or closure. [05:01] The rule of proximity, for instance, simply states that [05:03] we like to group nearby figures together. So instead of [05:06] seeing a random garble of partygoers, we tend to [05:09] mentally connect people standing next to each other. [05:11] Like, there’s the hockey team over there, and the debate team over there, and then you’ve got the [05:14] band geeks — why are all these people at the same party? We’re also drawn to organize our world with [05:18] attention to continuity,  perceiving smooth, continuous [05:22] patterns, and often ignoring broken ones. We also like [05:25] closure — and not just after a breakup. Visually, we want [05:28] to fill in gaps to create whole objects. So here, we see [05:32] an illusory triangle breaking the completion of these [05:34] circles on the left. But just add the little lines, close up [05:38]] the circles, and you stop seeing the triangle. Form Depth Perception [05:40] Perception is obviously crucial to making sense [05:42] of the world, or, y’know, a  moderately interesting party. [05:45] But imagine trying to navigate the world without [05:48] depth perception. As you gaze upon your one true love, [05:50] the image hits your retina in two dimensions. Yet somehow, [05:54] you’re still able to see the full three-dimensional [05:57] gloriousness of their form. You can thank your [06:00] depth perception for that! Depth perception is what helps us estimate an object’s distance [06:04] and full shape. In this case, a nice shape that is [06:07] currently too far away from you. It is at least partially [06:09] innate — even most babies have it. We’re able to perceive Binocular vs. Monocular Visual Cues [06:12] depth by using both binocular and monocular visual cues. [06:16] Binocular cues, as the name gives away, require the use [06:19] of both eyes. Because your eyes are about 2.5 inches apart, [06:22] your retinas receive ever-so-slightly different images. [06:25] You know, camera one, camera two. So when you’re [06:27] looking with both your eyes, your brain compares the two images to help judge distance. The closer [06:31] the object, the greater the difference between the two images, also known as the retinal disparity. [06:36] Retinal disparity is pretty easy to see, you just hold [06:39] your fingers up, and then you look past them, and [06:41] suddenly you have four instead of two fingers. Because those left and right images vary only [06:45] slightly, retinal disparity doesn’t help much when it comes to judging far-off distances. [06:50] For that, we look to monocular cues to help us determine the scale and distance of an object. [06:55] These are things like relative size and height, linear [06:58] perspective, texture gradient, and position. [07:01] Relative size allows you to determine that your crush is not supporting a tiny newborn chihuahua [07:05] on their shoulder, but rather, there’s a full-grown [07:08] chihuahua behind them in the back of the room. [07:10] In the absence of a chihuahua  (or like object), you [07:12] can also judge stances using your linear perspective. [07:15] If you’ve ever made a  perspective drawing in art class, [07:17] you’ll remember that parallel lines appear to meet [07:19] as they move into the distance.  Just like the tiled floor, [07:22] the sharper the angle of convergence, and the closer [07:24] the lines together, the greater the distance will seem. [07:27] And if you’ve ever looked out at a mountain range [07:29] or a Bob Ross painting, you’ll understand texture gradient as the cue that makes the first ridge [07:33] appear all rocky and textured, but as your eye follows the ridges into the distance, they become [07:38] less detailed. And finally,  our interposition, or overlap, [07:41] cue tells us when one object, like this oaf here,[07:44] blocks our view of something else, your crush, we perceive it as being closer. And in this case, [07:49] especially annoying. So all these perceptual concepts can be demonstrated with a fixed Motion Perception [07:53] image, but of course, life involves a lot of movement. At least if you’re doing it right. [07:57] We use motion perception to infer speed and direction of a moving object. [08:00] Like, your brain gauges motion based partly on the idea that shrinking objects are [08:04] retreating and enlarging objects are approaching. The thing is, your brain [08:08] is easily tricked when it comes to motion. For instance, large objects appear to move [08:12] much more slowly than small ones going the same speed. And in addition to organizing Perceptual Constancy [08:16] things by form, depth, and motion, our perception of the world also requires consistency. Or as [08:21] psychologists call it, constancy. Perceptual constancy is what allows us to continue [08:25] to recognize an object, regardless of its distance, viewing angle, motion, or illumination, [08:31] even as it might appear to change color, size, shape, and brightness, depending on the [08:35] conditions. Like, we know what a chihuahua looks like, whether it looks like this, [08:39] this, or this. In the end, though, your perception [08:41] isn’t just about funky optical illusions. It’s about [08:43] how you understand the world and your place in it, both physically and psychologically. [08:48] Your sensory organs pull in the world’s raw data, [08:51] which is disassembled into little bits of information [08:54] and then reassembled in your brain to form your own model of the world. It’s like your senses [08:59] are just collecting a bunch of Legos and your brain [09:02] can build and rebuild whatever it perceives. [09:05] A party, your crush, a duck, or a chihuahua. In other words, your brain constructs [09:11] your perceptions. And if you were correctly constructing your perceptions this lesson, Review & Credits [09:14] you learned what forms your perceptual set, how form perception works, and the many [09:18] visual cues that influence your depth perception. Thank you for watching, especially to all of our [09:23] Subbable subscribers who make this whole channel possible. If you’d like to sponsor an [09:27] episode of Crash Course Psychology, get a copy of one of our Rorschach prints, and even be [09:32] animated into an upcoming episode, just go This episode [09:36] was written by Kathleen Yale,  edited by Blake de Stino [09:38] and myself, and our consultant is Dr. Ranjit Bhagwat. [09:41] Our director and editor is Nicholas Jenkins, the script supervisor is Michael Aranda who is [09:46] also our sound designer, and the graphics team is Thought Café.

[Return to Video 2.2]

2.3.1 The Halo Effect

[00:03] The impression you create is affected by [00:06] the way you look. We tend to think [00:09] beautiful people are more intelligent, [00:11] popular, confident and better at [00:14] everything from their jobs to flying a [00:16] plane. And if you can create a favorable [00:20] impression, you can create advantages for [00:23] yourself. You’re more likely to get what [00:26] you want. It might be a job. It might be [00:29] popularity or it might be the control [00:33] you have over the people around you. Meet [00:38] Ruth and Rebecca. [00:40] Rebecca’s classically attractive. Ruth’s [00:43] more on the plain side. [00:50] They’re going to demonstrate that how [00:52] you look affects how you’re treated. [00:54] They’re going to struggle up staircases [00:56] at opposite ends of Liverpool Street [00:58] Station in London with heavy bags and [01:01] we’ll be filming in this workmen’s hut. [01:05] First up, Ruth. How long before a knight [01:09] in shining armor rescues this damsel in [01:11] distress? [01:38] Ruth: “Oh, that’s so kind of you.” Helped at last [01:45] but by two women and it took 45 seconds. [01:50] Now Rebecca’s turn. How long before she’s [01:54] rescued? [01:57] Male bystander: “You want a hand with your bags, love?” Rebecca: “Would you mind?” Male bystander: “No, not at all.” Rebecca: “Just shattered. I’m [02:01] just trying to get the top of those [02:02] stairs there. [02:04] Can you do the other one at the same [02:05] time?” All of eight seconds. [02:11] Ruth is occasionally saved but it [02:13] takes longer. On average 70 seconds. [02:16] Rebecca’s average: 24 seconds. Rebecca: “Just start [02:20] by these phones here. Great, [02:22] thanks!” You’d be forgiven for thinking [02:24] that this caveman behavior is more about [02:27] sex than chivalry. [02:28] Male bystander: “Yeah, pretty girl needing bags carrying [02:31] upstairs. I’m a sucker for that sort of thing. [02:33] Every time. From my grandfather. [02:35] He’s a charmer too.” But there’s more to it [02:38] than that. We have a tendency to think [02:40] highly of beautiful people. They are very [02:43] very delicate. sorry Hamilton family [02:46] heirloom switchy belief bringing them [02:48] back for my mum and we want to be near [02:51] them as if some of their glory will [02:54] reflect on to us um have you got a few [02:57] minutes is bad cuz it didn’t turn out [02:59] but I’d need to get them into a taxi [03:01] where I’m gonna be really rude now and [03:04] ask one more favor could you could you [03:07] lend me some money [03:08] how much you know can you do that on [03:11] three the men are mesmerised they do [03:14] anything Rebecca [03:17] although they clearly go out of their [03:19] way for a pretty girl you’re a true [03:21] gentleman I really appreciate it they [03:24] deny that looks have anything to do with [03:26] pain I’m really thirsty and I won’t mind [03:28] getting a drink – fine – wait that’s [03:30] what I got me at the moment you’re more [03:31] than welcome sir [03:32] if somebody needed help I’d like to [03:34] think that I words help [03:36] everybody across the range regardless if [03:38] they’re good-looking attractive smelly [03:40] well presented or whatever an American [03:42] study found business graduates earn six [03:44] hundred dollars a year more for every [03:46] extra inch of height and in U.S. [03:49] presidential elections the taller man [03:51] has won 17 out of 21 times [03:56] so to test whether size really does [03:59] matter we took two actors to the streets [04:01] of New York Marcus and Melvin earth [04:03] almost identical same age similar looks [04:06] just one obvious difference [04:09] Marcus is six foot four and Melvin’s [04:11] five foot two [04:14] but who looks more successful at work [04:18] first tall man Marcus he’s lawyer doctor [04:23] and then account it I would say he’s an [04:26] executive who likes sports [04:28] Carly earns about it was about half a [04:30] million a year 5 clover close to [04:33] sixty a year six thousand I would say [04:36] maybe a hundred hundred thousand a year [04:38] looks like a tycoon now short man Melvin [04:44] maybe a cook like a cook I think it’s a [04:49] quiet guy and he’s not very happy I [04:52] think he’s having difficult situation [04:54] right now [04:55] say ends well average income nothing [04:57] fancy but enough live on here minimum [05:01] wage I guess um 20,000 a year on average [05:06] they credited Melvin with Omega $20,000 [05:09] income and Marcus with a whopping two [05:12] hundred and twenty thousand dollars all [05:15] thanks to a difference of 14 inches I [05:17] wish I was his I stay true.

[Return to Video 2.3.1]

2.3.2 The Halo Effect, Reverse Halo Effect and Horn Effect Defined and Explained (w/Examples) in One Minute

Intro [00:00] Have you ever wondered why attractive [00:01] people who look happy appear so [00:03] frequently in commercials? [00:04] Well back in 1920 psychologist Edward [00:07] Thorndike coined a term for it, The Halo [00:09] Effect. He noticed that if people have The Halo Effect, [00:11] certain traits that we rate highly such [00:13] as attractiveness, we tend to perceive [00:15] them as also being competent, successful, [00:17] and so on. [00:17] In other words, the halo effect is the [00:19] judgment error or a cognitive bias which [00:21] revolves around us starting with [00:23] accurate information. For example, [00:24] noticing that someone is attractive and [00:26] based on that information we wrongfully [00:29] assume other positive things are also [00:30] true despite not having evidence to that [00:33] effect. However, things can get tricky for Reverse Halo Effect. [00:35] Example: Marshall Dermer and Barrow [00:37] noticed back in 1975 that being [00:40] attractive can backfire on you because [00:42] jealousy can make those less attractive [00:44] than you right you lower than you [00:45] deserve you can think of this as the [00:48] reverse halo effect finally we also have [00:50] the so-called horn effect and the name [00:52] speaks for itself in that you notice or [00:55] know something negative about someone [00:56] and find it very difficult to appreciate [00:59] or quantify the good things that person [01:01] does. For example, knowing that someone [01:03] used to be a criminal and finding it [01:05] difficult to believe he or she changed [01:06] even if that is the case.

[Return to Video 2.3.2]

2.4 How to Perception Check

Intro [00:02] [Music] [00:06] This one time me and my girlfriend were [00:07] eating lunch [00:08] when I matter-of-factly said, “I think [00:11] pickles are gross.” [00:13] She looked at me with this intense look [00:14] of disappointment and said, [00:16] “You have never been more wrong about [00:18] anything.” And I said, [00:20] “No, pickles are gross. They’re slimy. [00:22] They’re a mixture of the two worst [00:24] tastes, sourness and vinegar, and they’re [00:27] basically [00:28] just a cucumber’s smelly cousin.” And then [00:30] my girlfriend had this look of shock and [00:32] said, [00:33] “I gotta go so.” She stomps out of the room [00:36] and slams the door. [00:38] Now I’m sitting there thinking oh my [00:40] gosh did I [00:41] actually just start a fight over my [00:43] opinion on pickles? [00:45] Why is she angry at me for not liking [00:47] the same food she likes? [00:49] That’s so immature. I mean, if it’s really [00:52] that big of an issue you can just tell [00:54] me. [00:54] You don’t need to go and abandon ship. So [00:57] I sit there [00:58] and I start to get angry. Why won’t she [01:01] talk to me about this? This is insane. [01:04] Maybe she doesn’t care enough about me [01:05] to argue. Maybe this is just an [01:07] indication [01:08] of a way way bigger problem and then I [01:11] realized [01:12] this would be the perfect time to bust [01:14] out one of the most powerful tools [01:16] in the emotional intelligence toolbox: [01:19] perception checking. [01:21] My name is Damian Barton and today we’re [01:24] going to talk about perception checking [01:26] so we can figure out how to address [01:28] behavior that bothered us [01:29] without making the other person feel [01:31] attacked. [01:32] Let’s get into it. We constantly tell [01:36] ourselves a story [01:37] about why someone is acting the way they [01:39] are in psychology. We call those [01:41] explanations [01:42] attributions. We attribute behavior with [01:46] specific motivations. [01:48] That guy cut me off in traffic because [01:49] he’s a jerk. My mom calls me so often [01:52] cause she loves me. My girlfriend sent a [01:54] short text saying goodnight [01:56] instead of a long text so she must be [01:58] angry with me. [01:59] When we make these attributions, we’re [02:02] making assumptions about other people’s [02:04] behavior. [02:05] The problem with making assumptions [02:07] about why someone did something [02:09] is that we’re often wrong. We aren’t in [02:12] their head. [02:12] We don’t actually know what they’re [02:14] thinking. We can make guesses [02:16] but we don’t know for sure so [02:19] problems pop up when we tell ourselves a [02:22] story about why [02:23] someone just behaved the way they did. We [02:26] can get sent down this wild goose chase [02:28] for a goose that doesn’t exist. [02:30] We tell ourselves a whole story that [02:33] isn’t true. [02:34] We can get hung up on a problem that [02:36] just isn’t there. Making assumptions [02:38] can lead to fights that never needed to [02:41] happen. [02:42] I don’t know if my girlfriend was [02:43] actually angry about me insulting [02:45] pickles [02:46] or if she was just late for something [02:48] and she forgot to tell me about it. [02:50] So if she gets home and I say, “What is [02:52] your problem? [02:53] Why did you just stomp out of here?”, and [02:55] slam the door. [02:57] She might actually become angry or [02:59] defensive just because of the accusatory [03:02] tone [03:02] I’m using when I’m asking the question [03:05] and that [03:05] could lead to a whole new fight because [03:08] she feels like I’m being disrespectful. [03:10] So when we ask about why someone did the [03:13] thing they did [03:14] we don’t want to attack them. We want to [03:16] get the actual answer [03:18] of what’s going on through their head. So [03:21] how do we [03:22] effectively do this? It’s time for the [03:28] take away Perception Check. [03:33] We’re going to use a three-step process [03:35] called [03:36] perception checking. Now the goal of this [03:38] is to understand [03:39] why someone did something without [03:41] triggering a defensive response [03:44] so the first thing we’re going to do is [03:46] describe their behavior [03:48] in neutral language. I noticed that you [03:52] blank. [03:53] I noticed that you ran out of here in a [03:55] hurry. You see I’m not [03:56] applying a positive or negative spin to [03:59] their behavior. [04:00] I’m just stating exactly what they did [04:03] in as neutral of a tone as possible. [04:06] Then we provide two possible [04:08] explanations. [04:10] Were you blank or blank? Were you angry [04:13] about what I said about the pickles [04:15] or did you have somewhere to be that you [04:17] just forgot about? [04:19] And then we’re going to request feedback [04:22] and clarification [04:23] with the phrase, “What’s going on?” So all [04:26] together [04:27] it should sound like this: I noticed that [04:29] you ran out of here in a hurry. [04:31] Were you angry about what I said about [04:32] the pickles or did you have somewhere [04:35] you needed to be that you forgot about? [04:37] What’s going on?” In the pickle example, [04:40] she really was just running late and had [04:42] to race out of here to pick up her [04:43] parents from the airport. [04:45] But if I had ran with my assumption that [04:47] she genuinely [04:49] was really offended by my opinion on [04:51] pickles, [04:52] then I could have escalated it and [04:54] started a whole other fight that [04:56] never needed to happen. So remember, [04:59] don’t assume why someone did something. [05:02] More often than not [05:03] you’re probably wrong and if you want to [05:05] address behavior that bothered you [05:07] without making the other person feel [05:09] attacked use the three-step process [05:12] of perception checking. Don’t forget to [05:14] like and hit that subscribe button to be [05:16] notified [05:16] every time a new episode is released. If [05:19] you want to take part [05:20] in the Barton Blueprint for Emotional [05:22] Intelligence’s mission to destigmatize [05:24] mental health [05:25] the most helpful thing you can do is [05:27] share this episode with your friends and [05:28] family. [05:30] The more people who share, the faster [05:32] this information is going to get out [05:33] into the world [05:34] to the people who really need it. Also if [05:37] you like this show [05:38] and want more information go ahead and [05:40] follow us on all of our social media. [05:42] There’s a bunch of extra content like [05:44] infographics of some of the takeaway [05:45] tips and key concepts [05:47] as well as some fantastic mental health [05:49] quotes by many of the most notable names [05:51] in the field of psychology. The links are [05:53] down in the description below [05:55] and if you want to know more about any [05:57] of the research used in this episode [05:59] I always include the links in the [06:01] description below. [06:02] And as always, thank you for taking care [06:06] of each other [06:07] and taking care of yourself. I’ll see you [06:09] next week.

[Return to Video 2.4]

4.2 Your Body Language May Shape Who You Are: Amy Cuddy

[00:00] Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast [00:15] So I want to start by offering you a free no-tech life hack, [00:21] and all it requires of you is this: [00:24] that you change your posture for two nutes. [00:28] But before I give it away, I want to ask you to right now [00:31] do a little audit of your body and what you’re doing with your body. [00:35] So how many of you are sort of making yourselves smaller? [00:37] Maybe you’re hunching, crossing your legs, maybe wrapping your ankles. [00:41] Sometimes we hold onto our arms like this. [00:45] Sometimes we spread out. (Laughter)[00:48] I see you. [00:50] So I want you to pay attention to what you’re doing right now. [00:53] We’re going to come back to that in a few minutes, [00:56] and I’m hoping that if you learn to tweak this a little bit, [00:59] it could significantly change the way your life unfolds. [01:02] So, we’re really fascinated with body language, [01:07] and we’re particularly interested in other people’s body language. [01:11] You know, we’re interested in, like, you know — (Laughter) — [01:15] an awkward interaction, or a smile, [01:19] or a contemptuous glance, or maybe a very awkward wink, [01:24] or maybe even something like a handshake. [01:27] Narrator: Here they are arriving at Number 10. [01:30] This lucky policeman gets to shake hands with the President of the United States. [01:35] Here comes the Prime Minister — No. (Laughter) (Applause) [01:40] (Laughter) (Applause) [01:42] Amy Cuddy: So a handshake, or the lack of a handshake, [01:46] can have us talking for weeks and weeks and weeks. [01:48] Even the BBC and The New York Times. [01:51] So obviously when we think about nonverbal behavior, [01:55] or body language — but we call it nonverbals as social scientists — [01:58] it’s language, so we think about communication. [02:01] When we think about communication, we think about interactions. [02:04] So what is your body language communicating to me? [02:06] What’s mine communicating to you? [02:08] And there’s a lot of reason to believe that this is a valid way to look at this. [02:14] So social scientists have spent a lot of time [02:17] looking at the effects of our body language, [02:19] or other people’s body language, on judgments. [02:21] And we make sweeping judgments and inferences from body language. [02:24] And those judgments can predict really meaningful life outcomes [02:28] like who we hire or promote, who we ask out on a date. [02:32] For example, Nalini Ambady, a researcher at Tufts University, [02:37] shows that when people watch 30-second soundless clips [02:41] of real physician-patient interactions, [02:44] their judgments of the physician’s niceness [02:47] predict whether or not that physician will be sued. [02:50] So it doesn’t have to do so much [02:52] with whether or not that physician was incompetent, [02:54] but do we like that person and how they interacted? [02:57] Even more dramatic, Alex Todorov at Princeton [03:00] has shown us that judgments of political candidates’ faces [03:03] in just one second predict 70 percent [03:07] of U.S. Senate and gubernatorial race outcomes, [03:11] and even, let’s go digital, [03:14] emoticons used well in online negotiations [03:18] can lead you to claim more value from that negotiation. [03:21] If you use them poorly, bad idea. Right? [03:24] So when we think of nonverbals, we think of how we judge others, [03:27] how they judge us and what the outcomes are. [03:30] We tend to forget, though, the other audience [03:32] that’s influenced by our nonverbals, and that’s ourselves. [03:35] We are also influenced by our nonverbals, [03:38]our thoughts and our feelings and our physiology. [03:41] So what nonverbals am I talking about? [03:44] I’m a social psychologist. I study prejudice, [03:47] and I teach at a competitive business school, [03:50] so it was inevitable that I would become interested in power dynamics. [03:54] I became especially interested in nonverbal expressions [03:58] of power and dominance. [04:00] And what are nonverbal expressions of power and dominance? [04:03] Well, this is what they are. [04:05] So in the animal kingdom, they are about expanding. [04:08] So you make yourself big, you stretch out, [04:11] you take up space, you’re basically opening up. [04:14] It’s about opening up. [04:15] And this is true across the animal kingdom. [04:18] It’s not just limited to primates. [04:21] And humans do the same thing. (Laughter) [04:24] So they do this both when they have power sort of chronically, [04:27] and also when they’re feeling powerful in the moment. [04:30] And this one is especially interesting because it really shows us [04:33] how universal and old these expressions of power are. [04:38] This expression, which is known as pride, [04:40] Jessica Tracy has studied. [04:42] She shows that people who are born with sight [04:45] and people who are congenitally blind do this [04:48] when they win at a physical competition. [04:51] So when they cross the finish line and they’ve won, [04:53] it doesn’t matter if they’ve never seen anyone do it. [04:56] They do this. [04:57] So the arms up in the V, the chin is slightly lifted. [04:59] What do we do when we feel powerless? [05:01] We do exactly the opposite. [05:03] We close up. We wrap ourselves up. [05:06] We make ourselves small. [05:07] We don’t want to bump into the person next to us. [05:09] So again, both animals and humans do the same thing. [05:12] And this is what happens when you put together high and low power. [05:16] So what we tend to do when it comes to power [05:19] is that we complement the other’s nonverbals. [05:22] So if someone is being really powerful with us, [05:24] we tend to make ourselves smaller. We don’t mirror them. [05:27] We do the opposite of them. [05:29] So I’m watching this behavior in the classroom, [05:32] and what do I notice? [05:34] I notice that MBA students really exhibit the full range of power nonverbals. [05:42] So you have people who are like caricatures of alphas, [05:44] really coming into the room, they get right into the middle of the room [05:48] before class even starts, like they really want to occupy space. [05:51] When they sit down, they’re sort of spread out. [05:53] They raise their hands like this. [05:55] You have other people who are virtually collapsing [05:58] when they come in. As soon they come in, you see it. [06:00] You see it on their faces and their bodies, [06:03] and they sit in their chair and they make themselves tiny, [06:05] and they go like this when they raise their hand. [06:08] I notice a couple of things about this. [06:10] One, you’re not going to be surprised. [06:11] It seems to be related to gender. [06:13] So women are much more likely to do this kind of thing than men. [06:19] Women feel chronically less powerful than men, [06:22] so this is not surprising. [06:23] But the other thing I noticed [06:25] is that it also seemed to be related to the extent [06:28] to which the students were participating, and how well they were participating. [06:32] And this is really important in the MBA classroom, [06:35] because participation counts for half the grade. [06:37] So business schools have been struggling with this gender grade gap. [06:42] You get these equally qualified women and men coming in [06:45] and then you get these differences in grades, [06:47] and it seems to be partly attributable to participation. [06:50] So I started to wonder, you know, okay, [06:53] so you have these people coming in like this, and they’re participating. [06:57] Is it possible that we could get people to fake it [07:00] and would it lead them to participate more? [07:02] So my main collaborator Dana Carney, who’s at Berkeley, [07:06] and I really wanted to know, can you fake it till you make it? [07:10] Like, can you do this just for a little while [07:12] and actually experience a behavioral outcome [07:15] that makes you seem more powerful? [07:17] So we know that our nonverbals govern how other people [07:20] think and feel about us. There’s a lot of evidence. [07:23] But our question really was, [07:24] do our nonverbals govern how we think and feel about ourselves? [07:28] There’s some evidence that they do. [07:31] So, for example, we smile when we feel happy, [07:35] but also, when we’re forced to smile [07:38] by holding a pen in our teeth like this, it makes us feel happy. [07:42] So it goes both ways. [07:44] When it comes to power, it also goes both ways. [07:48] So when you feel powerful, [07:50] you’re more likely to do this, [07:52] but it’s also possible that when you pretend to be powerful, [07:58] you are more likely to actually feel powerful. [08:02] So the second question really was, you know, [08:05] so we know that our minds change our bodies, [08:07] but is it also true that our bodies change our minds? [08:12] And when I say minds, in the case of the powerful, [08:14] what am I talking about? [08:16] So I’m talking about thoughts and feelings [08:18] and the sort of physiological things that make up our thoughts and feelings, [08:22] and in my case, that’s hormones. I look at hormones. [08:25] So what do the minds of the powerful versus the powerless look like? [08:29] So powerful people tend to be, not surprisingly, [08:33] more assertive and more confident, more optimistic. [08:37] They actually feel they’re going to win even at games of chance. [08:41] They also tend to be able to think more abstractly. [08:45] So there are a lot of differences. They take more risks. [08:47] There are a lot of differences between powerful and powerless people. [08:51] Physiologically, there also are differences [08:53] on two key hormones: testosterone, which is the dominance hormone, [08:57] and cortisol, which is the stress hormone. [09:01] So what we find is that high-power alpha males in primate hierarchies [09:08] have high testosterone and low cortisol, [09:12] and powerful and effective leaders [09:15] also have high testosterone and low cortisol. [09:17] So what does that mean? When you think about power, [09:20] people tended to think only about testosterone, [09:22] because that was about dominance. [09:24] But really, power is also about how you react to stress. [09:27] So do you want the high-power leader that’s dominant, [09:30] high on testosterone, but really stress reactive? [09:33] Probably not, right? [09:35] You want the person who’s powerful and assertive and dominant, [09:38] but not very stress reactive, the person who’s laid back. [09:41] So we know that in primate hierarchies, [09:47] if an alpha needs to take over, [09:50] if an individual needs to take over an alpha role sort of suddenly, [09:54] within a few days, that individual’s testosterone has gone up [09:57] significantly and his cortisol has dropped significantly. [10:01] So we have this evidence, both that the body can shape [10:04] the mind, at least at the facial level, [10:06] and also that role changes can shape the mind. [10:10] So what happens, okay, you take a role change, [10:13] what happens if you do that at a really minimal level, [10:15] like this tiny manipulation, this tiny intervention? [10:18] “For two minutes,” you say, “I want you to stand like this, [10:21] and it’s going to make you feel more powerful.” [10:23] So this is what we did. [10:26] We decided to bring people into the lab and run a little experiment, [10:31] and these people adopted, for two minutes, [10:34] either high-power poses or low-power poses, [10:38] and I’m just going to show you five of the poses, [10:40] although they took on only two. [10:42] So here’s one. [10:45] A couple more. [10:47] This one has been dubbed the “Wonder Woman” by the media. [10:51] Here are a couple more. [10:53] So you can be standing or you can be sitting. [10:55] And here are the low-power poses. [10:57] So you’re folding up, you’re making yourself small. [11:01] This one is very low-power. [11:03] When you’re touching your neck, you’re really protecting yourself. [11:07] So this is what happens. [11:09] They come in, they spit into a vial, [11:11] for two minutes, we say, “You need to do this or this.” [11:14] They don’t look at pictures of the poses. [11:16] We don’t want to prime them with a concept of power. [11:19] We want them to be feeling power. [11:21] So two minutes they do this. [11:22] We then ask them, “How powerful do you feel?” on a series of items, [11:25] and then we give them an opportunity to gamble, [11:28] and then we take another saliva sample. [11:30] That’s it. That’s the whole experiment. [11:32] So this is what we find. [11:34] Risk tolerance, which is the gambling, [11:36] we find that when you are in the high-power pose condition, [11:40] 86 percent of you will gamble. [11:42] When you’re in the low-power pose condition, [11:44] only 60 percent, and that’s a whopping significant difference. [11:48] Here’s what we find on testosterone. [11:51] From their baseline when they come in, [11:53] high-power people experience about a 20-percent increase, [11:56] and low-power people experience about a 10-percent decrease. [12:01] So again, two minutes, and you get these changes. [12:04] Here’s what you get on cortisol. [12:06] High-power people experience about a 25-percent decrease, [12:10] and the low-power people experience about a 15-percent increase. [12:14] So two minutes lead to these hormonal changes [12:17] that configure your brain [12:18] to basically be either assertive, confident and comfortable, [12:23] or really stress-reactive, and feeling sort of shut down. [12:28] And we’ve all had the feeling, right? [12:30] So it seems that our nonverbals do govern how we think and feel about ourselves, [12:36] so it’s not just others, but it’s also ourselves. [12:38] Also, our bodies change our minds. [12:40] But the next question, of course, [12:43] is, can power posing for a few minutes [12:45] really change your life in meaningful ways? [12:47] This is in the lab, it’s this little task, it’s just a couple of minutes. [12:51] Where can you actually apply this? [12:53] Which we cared about, of course. [12:55] And so we think where you want to use this is evaluative situations, [13:01] like social threat situations. [13:04] Where are you being evaluated, either by your friends? [13:07] For teenagers, it’s at the lunchroom table. [13:09] For some people it’s speaking at a school board meeting. [13:13] It might be giving a pitch or giving a talk like this [13:17] or doing a job interview. [13:19] We decided that the one that most people could relate to [13:22] because most people had been through, was the job interview. [13:25] So we published these findings, [13:28] and the media are all over it, [13:29] and they say, Okay, so this is what you do [13:32] when you go in for the job interview, right? [13:34] (Laughter) [13:35] You know, so we were of course horrified, and said, [13:37] Oh my God, no, that’s not what we meant at all. [13:39] For numerous reasons, no, don’t do that. [13:42] Again, this is not about you talking to other people. [13:44] It’s you talking to yourself. [13:46] What do you do before you go into a job interview? You do this. [13:49] You’re sitting down. You’re looking at your iPhone — [13:52] or your Android, not trying to leave anyone out. [13:54] You’re looking at your notes, [13:56] you’re hunching up, making yourself small, [13:58] when really what you should be doing maybe is this, [14:00] like, in the bathroom, right? Do that. Find two minutes. [14:03] So that’s what we want to test. Okay? [14:05] So we bring people into a lab, [14:07] and they do either high- or low-power poses again, [14:10] they go through a very stressful job interview. [14:13] It’s five minutes long. They are being recorded. [14:16] They’re being judged also, [14:18] and the judges are trained to give no nonverbal feedback, [14:23] so they look like this. [14:25] Imagine this is the person interviewing you. [14:27] So for five minutes, nothing, and this is worse than being heckled. [14:31] People hate this. [14:33] It’s what Marianne LaFrance calls “standing in social quicksand.” [14:37] So this really spikes your cortisol. [14:39] So this is the job interview we put them through, [14:41] because we really wanted to see what happened. [14:43] We then have these coders look at these tapes, four of them. [14:46] They’re blind to the hypothesis. They’re blind to the conditions. [14:49] They have no idea who’s been posing in what pose, [14:52] and they end up looking at these sets of tapes, [14:57] and they say, “We want to hire these people,” [15:00] all the high-power posers. [15:01] “We don’t want to hire these people. [15:03] We also evaluate these people much more positively overall.” [15:07] But what’s driving it? [15:08] It’s not about the content of the speech. [15:10] It’s about the presence that they’re bringing to the speech. [15:13] Because we rate them on all these variables [15:16] related to competence, like, how well-structured is the speech? [15:19] How good is it? What are their qualifications? [15:22] No effect on those things. This is what’s affected. [15:24] These kinds of things. [15:26] People are bringing their true selves, basically. [15:28] They’re bringing themselves. [15:30] They bring their ideas, but as themselves, [15:32] with no, you know, residue over them. [15:34] So this is what’s driving the effect, or mediating the effect. [15:39] So when I tell people about this, [15:42] that our bodies change our minds and our minds can change our behavior, [05:46] and our behavior can change our outcomes, they say to me, [15:49] “It feels fake.” Right? [15:50] So I said, fake it till you make it. [15:52] It’s not me. [15:54] I don’t want to get there and then still feel like a fraud. [15:57] I don’t want to feel like an impostor. [15:59] I don’t want to get there only to feel like I’m not supposed to be here. [16:03] And that really resonated with me, [16:05] because I want to tell you a little story about being an impostor [16:08] and feeling like I’m not supposed to be here. [16:11] When I was 19, I was in a really bad car accident. [16:14] I was thrown out of a car, rolled several times. [16:17] I was thrown from the car. [16:19] And I woke up in a head injury rehab ward, [16:22] and I had been withdrawn from college, [16:24] and I learned that my IQ had dropped by two standard deviations, [16:30] which was very traumatic. [16:32] I knew my IQ because I had identified with being smart, [16:35] and I had been called gifted as a child. [16:37] So I’m taken out of college, I keep trying to go back. [16:41] They say, “You’re not going to finish college. [16:43] Just, you know, there are other things for you to do, [16:45] but that’s not going to work out for you.” [16:47] So I really struggled with this, and I have to say, [16:51] having your identity taken from you, your core identity, [16:54] and for me it was being smart, [16:56] having that taken from you, [16:57] there’s nothing that leaves you feeling more powerless than that. [17:00] So I felt entirely powerless. [17:02] I worked and worked, and I got lucky, [17:04] and worked, and got lucky, and worked. [17:06] Eventually I graduated from college. [17:08] It took me four years longer than my peers, [17:10] and I convinced someone, my angel advisor, Susan Fiske, [17:15] to take me on, and so I ended up at Princeton, [17:17] and I was like, I am not supposed to be here. [17:20] I am an impostor. [17:22] And the night before my first-year talk, [17:24] and the first-year talk at Princeton is a 20-minute talk to 20 people. [17:27] That’s it. [17:28] I was so afraid of being found out the next day [17:31] that I called her and said, “I’m quitting.” [17:34] She was like, “You are not quitting, [17:35] because I took a gamble on you, and you’re staying. [17:38] You’re going to stay, and this is what you’re going to do. [17:41] You are going to fake it. [17:42] You’re going to do every talk that you ever get asked to do. [17:45] You’re just going to do it and do it and do it, [17:48] even if you’re terrified and just paralyzed [17:50] and having an out-of-body experience, [17:52] until you have this moment where you say, ‘Oh my gosh, I’m doing it. [17:56] Like, I have become this. I am actually doing this.'” [17:59] So that’s what I did. [18:00] Five years in grad school, [18:01] a few years, you know, I’m at Northwestern, [18:03] I moved to Harvard, I’m at Harvard, [18:05] I’m not really thinking about it anymore, but for a long time I had been thinking, [18:09] “Not supposed to be here.” [18:11] So at the end of my first year at Harvard, [18:14] a student who had not talked in class the entire semester, [18:18] who I had said, “Look, you’ve gotta participate or else you’re going to fail,” [18:22] came into my office. I really didn’t know her at all. [18:25] She came in totally defeated, and she said, [18:28] “I’m not supposed to be here.” [18:35] And that was the moment for me. [18:37] Because two things happened. [18:38] One was that I realized, [18:40] oh my gosh, I don’t feel like that anymore. [18:43] I don’t feel that anymore, but she does, and I get that feeling. [18:46] And the second was, she is supposed to be here! [18:48] Like, she can fake it, she can become it. [18:50] So I was like, “Yes, you are! You are supposed to be here! [18:54] And tomorrow you’re going to fake it, [18:56] you’re going to make yourself powerful, and, you know — [18:58] (Applause) [19:04] And you’re going to go into the classroom, [19:08] and you are going to give the best comment ever.” [19:10] You know? And she gave the best comment ever, [19:13] and people turned around and were like, [19:15] oh my God, I didn’t even notice her sitting there. (Laughter) [19:18] She comes back to me months later, [19:20] and I realized that she had not just faked it till she made it, [19:23] she had actually faked it till she became it. [19:25] So she had changed. [19:27] And so I want to say to you, don’t fake it till you make it. [19:31] Fake it till you become it. [19:34] Do it enough until you actually become it and internalize. [19:38] The last thing I’m going to leave you with is this. [19:40] Tiny tweaks can lead to big changes. [19:45] So, this is two minutes. [19:47] Two minutes, two minutes, two minutes. [19:49] Before you go into the next stressful evaluative situation, [19:52] for two minutes, try doing this, in the elevator, [19:55] in a bathroom stall, at your desk behind closed doors. [19:58] That’s what you want to do. [20:00] Configure your brain to cope the best in that situation. [20:03] Get your testosterone up. Get your cortisol down. [20:05] Don’t leave that situation feeling like, oh, I didn’t show them who I am. [20:09] Leave that situation feeling like, [20:11] I really feel like I got to say who I am and show who I am. [20:14] So I want to ask you first, you know, both to try power posing, [20:20] and also I want to ask you to share the science, because this is simple. [20:25] I don’t have ego involved in this. (Laughter) [20:27] Give it away. Share it with people, [20:29] because the people who can use it the most [20:31] are the ones with no resources and no technology [20:35] and no status and no power. [20:37] Give it to them because they can do it in private. [20:40] They need their bodies, privacy and two minutes, [20:42] and it can significantly change the outcomes of their life. [20:45] Thank you. [20:46] (Applause)

[Return to Video 4.2]

4.2.1 Clinical Communication Skills-Nonverbal Communication: Consultation-Version 1 of 2

[00:11] Speaker 1: Come in! Mrs. Heskett? Speaker 2: Yes, that’s right. Speaker 1: What can I [00:22] do for you? Speaker 2: Um, I’ve come for my repeat [00:26] prescription. Speaker 1: Which one is that? [00:30] Speaker 2: Um, I don’t know. The yellow pills. Speaker 1: Okay. [00:39] Speaker 2: Actually, while I was here. Well I’ve been [00:45] getting. Um, I’ve been getting [00:49] headaches quite a lot lately. [00:58] Speaker 1: Anything else? [01:00] Speaker 2: Well it’s happened before. My other [01:05] doctor thought it was migraine but I [01:09] mean they’re there all the time at the [01:11] moment and I suppose I wondered whether [01:18] I ought to come off the pill? Speaker 1: So what [01:23] do you want me to deal with today? Speaker 2: Um, [01:28] well. I suppose. [01:34] Well I suppose my husband thinks that um [01:38] I ought to come off the pill because [01:42] I’ve been getting them. Actually, I’m [01:46] getting quite depressed [01:47] recently. [speaker 2 is crying] Speaker 1: It’s okay to cry. [speaker 1 answers ringing phone] [01:51] Oh, hi. Oh, thanks for phoning. Yep, what [02:00] time do you reckon? 2:30? That’d be good. I’ll [02:04] be looking forward to seeing you there. Bit [02:06] caught up at the moment so can’t really [02:09] talk. Yep, okay 2:30. Bye. Speaker 2: I think I’ll come back when [02:15] you’re bit less busy. Speaker 1: No, no. I want [02:18] to hear more about it.

[Return to Video 4.2.1]

4.2.2 Clinical Communication Skills-Nonverbal Communication Consultation-Version 2 of 2

[00:08] Speaker 1: Come in. Speaker 2: Hello. Speaker 1: Ah, Mrs. Haskett. Come and sit down [00:13] please. Speaker 2: Thanks [00:14] Speaker 1: What can I do for you? Speaker 2: I’ve come for my [00:19] repeat prescription. Speaker 1: Okay, which one? Speaker 2: I [00:23] don’t know. The yellow pills. Speaker 1: Oh, yes. Okay. [00:28] Yeah, we can sort that. Speaker 2: All right [00:30] Speaker 1: Anything else? Speaker 2: Well, yeah. I’ve been [00:36] getting quite a lot of headaches [00:39] lately. Speaker 1: Okay. Speaker 2: I’ve had them [00:45] before. My other doctor said it was [00:47] migraine. Speaker 1: Mm-hmm. Speaker 2: But I’m well I’m having [00:53] them all the time at the moment. Speaker 1: Okay. [00:58] Speaker 2: I was just wondering whether I should [01:00] come off the pill? Speaker 1: Okay, what makes you [01:04] say that? [01:05] Speaker 2: Well, it was my husband. He thinks I [01:09] should come off the pill because… I [01:16] don’t know. I’ve been getting quite depressed recently. [speaker 2 is crying, the phone is ringing, speaker 1 gives speaker 2 a tissue] [01:19] Speaker 1: It’s okay. That’s okay. Speaker 2: Thank you. Speaker 1: Just [01:25] ignore the telephone. Speaker 2: Oh dear. I don’t know. Maybe I [01:31] should come back when you’re not so busy [01:33] Speaker 1: No, no, no, no. I need to hear more about this [01:44].

[Return to Video 4.2.2]

5.5.1 Big Bang Theory Active Listening

[00:01] First there was Playstation aka PS1 then [00:05] PS2, PS3 and now PS4 and that makes [00:08] sense. You think after Xbox there’d be [00:11] Xbox 2 but no [00:12] next came Xbox 360. Hmm. And now after 360 [00:17] comes Xbox One. By One maybe that’s how [00:22] many seconds of thought they put into [00:24] naming it.  Can you get the butter please? [00:27] Yeah, however with the Xbox One I can [00:30] control my entire entertainment system [00:32] using voice commands. Up until now I’ve [00:35] had to use Leonard. The other one. Pass [00:39] the butter. Get. Hang on! I don’t feel like [00:43] you’re taking this dilemma seriously. [00:45] Fine Sheldon, you have my undivided [00:49] attention. [00:49] Okay, now the PS4 is your angular and [00:54] sleek-looking. No way is true but the [00:58] larger size of the Xbox One may keep it [01:00] from overheating. You wouldn’t want your [01:02] gaming system to overheat. [01:03] Nope. See what you absolutely would not [01:05] and then furthermore the Xbox One now [01:07] comes with a Kinect included. [01:10] Yes, not sold separately. Yeah. Although [01:15] the PS4 uses cool new gddr5 vram while [01:18] the Xbox One is still using the [01:20] conventional ddr3 memory. Why would they [01:22] still be using ddr3? Are they nuts? [01:26] See that’s what I thought but then they [01:29] go and throw in an es Ram before is he [01:32] who’s they dude Xbox you’re kidding. No [01:36] this esram buffer should totally bridge [01:39] the 100 gigabit per second bandwidth gap [01:41] between the two rams types. This is a [01:43] nightmare. How will you ever make a [01:44] decision?  Yeah, I go.  What should I do?

[Return to Video 5.5.1]

5.5.2 Improve Your Listening Skills with Active Listening

[00:08] Think about how much information you get every day from listening. [00:12] Your boss, your colleagues, your clients, and your suppliers may communicate with you often. [00:17] So will your family and friends. [00:20] How much of what all these people say do you pay attention to? [00:24] How much are you actually remembering from these conversations? [00:27] Chances are, it’s a lot less than you think! [00:31] A lot of times, we act as if we’re listening to the other person. But the reality is that our minds are racing to other topics, or already planning what we’re going to say in return. [00:41] This means that we can miss important things that the other person is saying. [00:45] ACTIVE Listening is when you make a conscious effort to hear and understand people so that you get the complete message. [00:54] There are several things you can do to become an active listener. [00:58] First, you need to pay attention. [01:00] We know this is a bit obvious, but it’s the most important part of active listening. [01:05] For instance, make eye contact with the person talking to you. Ignore outside factors, like other conversations, [01:12] so that you can focus solely on what the person is saying. [01:16] Most importantly, put your own thoughts on hold. [01:19] Resist the urge to start planning out what you’re going to say in return. [01:23] You also need to show the other person that you’re listening to them. You can nod your head, smile, and say “yes” occasionally. [01:30] All of these signals let the other person know you’re still with them. [01:34] Providing feedback on what the other person has just said is another important part of active listening. [01:40] For instance, all of us hear information through our own personal filters and judgments. This can affect our understanding. [01:48] To make sure you heard and understood the message correctly, [01:54] You can also ask questions to get more information. [01:57] But make sure that you listen to what they’re saying BEFORE you plan your response! [02:03] You also need to avoid interrupting when they are speaking. Once they’re finished, you can respond appropriately with an honest answer or opinion. [02:12] Active listening is a skill that all of us should use more often. The better you are at listening, the more information you’ll receive. [02:20] This can pay off with big rewards in your career, and strengthen your bonds with family and friends. [02:26] You can find out more about active listening in the article that accompanies this video.

[Return to Video 5.5.2]

5.5.3 Empathy: The Human Connection to Patient Care

[00:01] Could a greater miracle take place [00:03] than for us to look through each other’s eyes [00:05] for an instant? [00:09] ♪ [00:13] Has been dreading this appointment. [00:16] Fears he waited too long. [00:21] ♪ [00:24] Wife’s surgery went well. [00:26] Going home to rest. [00:29] ♪ [00:35] Day 29 Waiting for a new heart. [00:38] ♪ [00:43] 19 year-old son on life support. [00:50] ♪ [00:52] Doesn’t completely understand. [00:57] ♪ [00:58] Too shocked to [01:00] comprehend treatment options. [01:02] ♪ [01:04] Waiting 3 hours. [01:10] ♪ [01:12] Husband is terminally ill. [01:18] Visiting Dad for the last time. [01:25] Celebrating 25th wedding anniversary. [01:29] ♪ [01:35] Wife had stroke. [01:38] Worried how he will take care of her. [01:42] Recently divorced. [01:48] Just found out he’s going to be a dad. [01:51] ♪ [01:53] Daughter is getting married on Saturday. [01:57] Determined to be there. [02:00] ♪ [02:03] Worried how he will pay for this. [02:10] ♪ [02:12] Tomorrow, first vacation in years. [02:18] ♪ [02:23] 7,000 miles from home. [02:29] ♪ [02:32] Nearing the end of a 12-hour shift. [02:37] ♪ [02:42] 7 years cancer free. [02:45] ♪ [02:48] Hoping to hold her today. [02:54] ♪ [02:56] They saw “something” on her mammogram. [03:03] ♪ [03:05] Just signed DNR (Do-Not-Resuscitate) [03:08] ♪ [03:13] Always wanted a child of her own. [03:16] ♪ [03:20] Ears all better. Finally! [03:25] ♪ [03:28] Car accident 6 months ago. [03:32] Pain won’t go away. [03:36] ♪ [03:37] Tumor was benign. [03:41] Tumor was malignant. [03:45] ♪ [03:46] If you could stand in someone else’s shoes… [03:48] ♪ [03:52] Hear what they hear. [03:55] ♪ [03:58] See what they see. [04:01] ♪ [04:05] Feel what they feel. [04:08] ♪ [04:11] Would you treat them differently? [04:16] ♪

[Return to Video 5.5.3]

5.5.4 5 Ways to Listen Better

[00:15] We are losing our listening. [00:18] We spend roughly 60 percent of our communication time listening, [00:22] but we’re not very good at it. [00:24] We retain just 25 percent of what we hear. [00:26] Now — not you, not this talk, [00:28] but that is generally true. [00:29] (Laughter) [00:31] Let’s define listening as making meaning from sound. [00:34] It’s a mental process, [00:36] and it’s a process of extraction. [00:39] We use some pretty cool techniques to do this. [00:41] One of them is pattern recognition. [00:43] (Crowd noises) So in a cocktail party like this, [00:45] if I say, “David, Sara, pay attention” — some of you just sat up. [00:49] We recognize patterns to distinguish noise from signal, [00:53] and especially our name. [00:55] Differencing is another technique we use. [00:57] If I left this pink noise on for more than a couple of minutes, [01:00] (Pink noise) you would literally cease to hear it. [01:03] We listen to differences; we discount sounds that remain the same. [01:08] And then there is a whole range of filters. [01:11] These filters take us from all sound [01:13] down to what we pay attention to. [01:15] Most people are entirely unconscious of these filters. [01:19] But they actually create our reality in a way, [01:22] because they tell us what we’re paying attention to right now. [01:25] I’ll give you one example of that. [01:27] Intention is very important in sound, in listening. [01:30] When I married my wife, [01:32] I promised her I would listen to her every day [01:34] as if for the first time. [01:37] Now that’s something I fall short of on a daily basis. [01:40] (Laughter) [01:41] But it’s a great intention to have in a relationship. [01:44] (Laughter) [01:45] But that’s not all. [01:47] Sound places us in space and in time. [01:50] If you close your eyes right now in this room, [01:52] you’re aware of the size of the room [01:55] from the reverberation and the bouncing of the sound off the surfaces; [01:58] you’re aware of how many people are around you, [02:01] because of the micro-noises you’re receiving. [02:03] And sound places us in time as well, [02:06] because sound always has time embedded in it. [02:09] In fact, I would suggest that our listening is the main way [02:12] that we experience the flow of time [02:14] from past to future. [02:17] So, “Sonority is time and meaning” — a great quote. [02:20] I said at the beginning, we’re losing our listening. [02:22] Why did I say that? [02:23] Well, there are a lot of reasons for this. [02:25] First of all, we invented ways of recording — [02:28] first writing, then audio recording and now video recording as well. [02:31] The premium on accurate and careful listening has simply disappeared. [02:36] Secondly, the world is now so noisy, [02:39] (Noise) with this cacophony going on visually and auditorily, [02:44] it’s just hard to listen; [02:46] it’s tiring to listen. [02:48] Many people take refuge in headphones, [02:50] but they turn big, public spaces like this, [02:53] shared soundscapes, [02:55] into millions of tiny, little personal sound bubbles. [02:59] In this scenario, nobody’s listening to anybody. [03:03] We’re becoming impatient. [03:05] We don’t want oratory anymore; we want sound bites. [03:08] And the art of conversation is being replaced — dangerously, I think — [03:12] by personal broadcasting. [03:14] I don’t know how much listening there is in this conversation, [03:18] which is sadly very common, especially in the UK. [03:21] We’re becoming desensitized. [03:23] Our media have to scream at us with these kinds of headlines [03:26] in order to get our attention. [03:28] And that means it’s harder for us to pay attention [03:31] to the quiet, the subtle, the understated. [03:35] This is a serious problem that we’re losing our listening. [03:38] This is not trivial, [03:40] because listening is our access to understanding. [03:44] Conscious listening always creates understanding, [03:47] and only without conscious listening [03:50] can these things happen. [03:52] A world where we don’t listen to each other at all [03:55] is a very scary place indeed. [03:59] So I’d like to share with you five simple exercises, [04:02] tools you can take away with you, [04:04] to improve your own conscious listening. [04:06] Would you like that? [04:07] Audience: Yes! [04:08] Good. The first one is silence. [04:11] Just three minutes a day of silence is a wonderful exercise [04:15] to reset your ears and to recalibrate, [04:17] so that you can hear the quiet again. [04:20] If you can’t get absolute silence, [04:21] go for quiet, that’s absolutely fine. [04:24] Second, I call this “the mixer.” [04:27] (Noise) So even if you’re in a noisy environment like this — [04:31] and we all spend a lot of time in places like this — [04:33] listen in the coffee bar to how many channels of sound can I hear? [04:37] How many individual channels in that mix am I listening to? [04:40] You can do it in a beautiful place as well, like in a lake. [04:44] How many birds am I hearing? [04:45] Where are they? Where are those ripples? [04:47] It’s a great exercise for improving the quality of your listening. [04:52] Third, this exercise I call “savoring,” and this is a beautiful exercise. [04:56] It’s about enjoying mundane sounds. [04:58] This, for example, is my tumble dryer. [05:01] (Dryer) [05:02] It’s a waltz — one, two, three; one, two, three; one, two, three. [05:07] I love it! [05:08] Or just try this one on for size. [05:10] (Coffee grinder) [05:19] Wow! [05:21] So, mundane sounds can be really interesting — [05:23] if you pay attention. [05:24] I call that the “hidden choir” — it’s around us all the time. [05:28] The next exercise is probably the most important of all of these, [05:32] if you just take one thing away. [05:33] This is listening positions — [05:35] the idea that you can move your listening position [05:39] to what’s appropriate to what you’re listening to. [05:41] This is playing with those filters. [05:43] Remember I gave you those filters? [05:45] It’s starting to play with them as levers, [05:47] to get conscious about them and to move to different places. [05:50] These are just some of the listening positions, [05:52] or scales of listening positions, that you can use. [05:54] There are many. [05:56] Have fun with that. It’s very exciting. [05:58] And finally, an acronym. [06:00] You can use this in listening, in communication. [06:03] If you’re in any one of those roles — [06:05] and I think that probably is everybody who’s listening to this talk — [06:09] the acronym is RASA, [06:11] which is the Sanskrit word for “juice” or “essence.” [06:15] And RASA stands for “Receive,” which means pay attention to the person; [06:20] “Appreciate,” making little noises like “hmm,” “oh,” “OK”; [06:23] “Summarize” — the word “so” is very important in communication; [06:27] and “Ask,” ask questions afterwards. [06:30] Now sound is my passion, it’s my life. [06:32] I wrote a whole book about it. So I live to listen. [06:35] That’s too much to ask for most people. [06:38] But I believe that every human being needs to listen consciously [06:41] in order to live fully — [06:44] connected in space and in time to the physical world around us, [06:47] connected in understanding to each other, [06:50] not to mention spiritually connected, [06:52] because every spiritual path I know of has listening and contemplation [06:56] at its heart. [06:57] That’s why we need to teach listening in our schools as a skill. [07:03] Why is it not taught? It’s crazy. [07:06] And if we can teach listening in our schools, [07:08] we can take our listening off that slippery slope [07:11] to that dangerous, scary world that I talked about, [07:13] and move it to a place where everybody is consciously listening all the time, [07:17] or at least capable of doing it. [07:19] Now, I don’t know how to do that, [07:21] but this is TED, [07:23] and I think the TED community is capable of anything. [07:26] So I invite you to connect with me, connect with each other, [07:29] take this mission out. [07:31] And let’s get listening taught in schools, [07:33] and transform the world in one generation [07:35] to a conscious, listening world — a world of connection, [07:37] a world of understanding [07:39] and a world of peace. [07:40] Thank you for listening to me today. [07:42] (Applause)

[Return to Video 5.5.4]

6.6 Hope in Work

[00:00] Hi everyone. My name is Sarah Mike and [00:02] I’m head of psychological services in [00:04] about fast just we’re working in [00:07] difficult times in Health and Social [00:09] Care and there are new challenges and [00:11] worries as we come on to shift or into [00:14] work [00:14] we’re leaving families and friends and [00:17] our ongoing concerns for them and for [00:20] ourselves and these can make the [00:22] transition into work both emotionally [00:24] and in our thinking were difficult than [00:27] usual following exercise is called hope [00:30] and work that is hoped that it will help [00:33] you prepare mentally and emotionally for [00:36] the day or shift ahead as you begin to [00:40] start your day or shift take five [00:42] minutes to prepare for the work ahead [00:45] take a moment to refocus from all the [00:48] responsibilities and business of home [00:50] and turn your mind towards work take a [00:54] moment at the start of this shift to [00:56] find your breath breathe in deeply fill [01:02] your lungs to fill capacity to hold for [01:05] a little moment and then release take a [01:10] few deep breath and connect with your [01:13] breathing find the flow that works for [01:17] you your own comfortable rhythm our [01:22] breath is at the center of our wellness [01:26] as you’re prepared to move into this [01:28] shift remind yourself of the skills and [01:31] knowledge that you bring with you and [01:34] remembering keep attention on your [01:36] breath notice if it shifts and becomes [01:40] more rapid or more shallow take control [01:43] of it again [01:44] breathing deeply finding your own [01:48] comfortable and relaxed rhythm feel your [01:52] Center in return acknowledge that [01:56] throughout the day you may lose sight of [01:59] your skills and feel anxious it may be [02:03] helpful to keep a few messages in [02:04] millions throughout the day which you [02:07] can use to remind yourself and your [02:09] colleagues of your skills and theirs [02:13] these may include repeating statements [02:16] such as and I can cook right now I am [02:20] supported by my team this situation will [02:26] not last forever this does not feel good [02:31] but it will pass I feel upset but I can [02:36] accept I am feeling right now and I am [02:40] strong enough to get through this and as [02:45] you continue that calm breath I want you [02:48] to squeeze your thumb and middle finger [02:50] of your right hand together and as you [02:55] squeeze and tightly together be reminded [02:59] of your knowledge your skill set and [03:03] your strength [03:05] if you feel anxious throughout the day [03:08] squeeze the thumb and middle finger of [03:12] your right hand together as a reminder [03:13] of this and as a reminder to recenter [03:17] your breath and a trigger to return to [03:21] the present reminding yourself that I am [03:24] strong enough to get through this and I [03:28] can cook right now and for a moment as [03:32] you move into work gently close your [03:34] eyes take a few moments to yourself and [03:39] as you move into shift or into the day [03:43] re pledge what you can bring I can bring [03:48] all my knowledge and skill I bring my [03:51] compassion and care to each patient I [03:56] bring my compassion and care to each [03:59] colleague I bring my compassion and care [04:04] to myself I can do my best and expect no [04:09] more of myself and we can expect no more [04:13] of each other [04:17] and so with your next full breath and [04:21] bad these pledges into your shift or [04:24] into your day ahead with the next breath [04:28] leave all other aspects of you behind [04:32] move into the professional you please [04:37] apparent the child a sibling to be [04:41] picked up again later on your way home [04:45] be confident in the systems that you’ve [04:48] put in place for others care focus on [04:54] the shift from the day ahead [04:59] and throughout the day as your mind [05:01] moves into the past or to the future [05:07] with each breath that you take remind [05:09] yourself of your pledges remind yourself [05:15] that you are strong enough to get [05:17] through this that you can cope right now [05:21] and that you are supported and [05:24] supporting of those around you [05:30] remind yourself to squeeze your fingers [05:33] together as a trigger memory to focus on [05:36] present [05:39] and so on your next breath open your [05:43] eyes and move into work calmly and ready [05:49] to face whatever the day presents to me.

[Return to Video 6.6]

6.7.1 Effective Interview Introduction

[00:00:03] Speaker 1: Hello, Mr. Almond. My name is Malaya Bautista. I am a registered nurse. How should I refer to you? [00:00:10] Speaker 2: Oh, you can call me Francisco. [00:00:11] Speaker 1: Thank you, Francisco. And who is with you today? [00:00:13] Speaker 2: Well, this is my daughter Ainsley. [00:00:13] Speaker 1: Hello, Ainsley. [00:00:17] Speaker 3: Hi.

[Return to Video 6.7.1]

6.7.2 Ineffective Interview Introduction

[00:00:03] Speaker 1: Hello, this must be your daughter. I’m glad you came in with your dad today. How has he been sleeping? [00:00:09] Speaker 2: Um. I’m not sure you could ask him.

[Return to Video 6.7.2]

6.9.1 False Reassurance

[00:00:03] Speaker 1: OK, Millie, I’m going to wheel you to the operating room in about half an hour. Do you need anything right now? [00:00:08] Speaker 2: Um. No, I don’t think so. [00:00:10] Speaker 1: OK, are you sure? [00:00:11] Speaker 2: Well, I’m just really scared if I don’t wake up from my surgery. [00:00:15] Speaker 1: Ohh Millie, you don’t have to worry about that. That won’t happen. You have an excellent team and they’re going to make sure you wake up from the surgery. They’ve done many types of these procedures before.

[Return to Video 6.9.1]

6.9.2 How to Avoid False Reassurance

[00:00:03] Speaker 1: OK, Millie, I’m going to wheel you to the operating room in about half an hour. Do you need anything right now? [00:00:09] Speaker 2: Um. No, I don’t think so. [00:00:10] Speaker 1: OK, are you sure? [00:00:12] Speaker 2: Well, I’m just scared if I won’t wake up from my surgery. [00:00:17] Speaker 1: Can you tell me a little bit more about what’s making you feel scared about not waking up from the surgery? [00:00:21] Speaker 2: Well, a doctor told my mum that there’s a possibility that I won’t wake up from my surgery. [00:00:25] Speaker 1: The doctor has to explain all of the risks before starting the surgery. Did the doctor also tell you that this risk is very, very low? [00:00:34] Speaker 2: No. It is?

[Return to Video 6.9.2]

8.1 Why Good Leaders Make You Feel Safe

[00:12] There’s a man by the name of Captain [00:15] William Swenson [00:17] who recently was awarded the congressional Medal of Honor [00:20] for his actions on September 8, 2009. [00:25] On that day, a column of American [00:27] and Afghan troops [00:29] were making their way [00:30] through a part of Afghanistan [00:33] to help protect [00:36] a group of government officials, [00:38] a group of Afghan government officials, [00:39] who would be meeting with some local [00:42] village elders. [00:43] The column came under ambush, [00:45] and was surrounded on three sides, [00:48] and amongst many other things, [00:51] Captain Swenson was recognized [00:52] for running into live fire [00:55] to rescue the wounded [00:56] and pull out the dead. [01:00] One of the people he rescued was a sergeant, [01:03] and he and a comrade were making their way [01:05] to a medevac helicopter. [01:08] And what was remarkable about this day [01:10] is, by sheer coincidence, [01:12] one of the medevac medics [01:13] happened to have a GoPro camera on his helmet [01:16] and captured the whole scene on camera. [01:21] It shows Captain Swenson and his comrade [01:24] bringing this wounded soldier [01:25] who had received a gunshot to the neck. [01:30] They put him in the helicopter, [01:33] and then you see Captain Swenson bend over [01:37] and give him a kiss [01:40] before he turns around to rescue more. [01:44] I saw this, and I thought to myself, [01:48] where do people like that come from? [01:50] What is that? That is some deep, deep emotion, [01:53] when you would want to do that. [01:55] There’s a love there, [01:57] and I wanted to know why is it that [01:59] I don’t have people that I work with like that? [02:02] You know, in the military, they give medals [02:03] to people who are willing to sacrifice themselves [02:06] so that others may gain. [02:08] In business, we give bonuses to people [02:10] who are willing to sacrifice others [02:11] so that we may gain. [02:13] We have it backwards. Right? [02:17] So I asked myself, where do people like this come from? [02:19] And my initial conclusion was that they’re just better people. [02:22] That’s why they’re attracted to the military. [02:23] These better people are attracted [02:25] to this concept of service. [02:27] But that’s completely wrong. [02:29] What I learned was that it’s the environment, [02:31] and if you get the environment right, [02:34] every single one of us has the capacity [02:35] to do these remarkable things, [02:37] and more importantly, others have that capacity too. [02:40] I’ve had the great honor of getting to meet [02:42] some of these, who we would call heroes, [02:45] who have put themselves and put their lives [02:47] at risk to save others, [02:49] and I asked them, “Why would you do it? [02:51] Why did you do it?” [02:53] And they all say the same thing: [02:56] “Because they would have done it for me.” [02:58] It’s this deep sense of trust and cooperation. [03:01] So trust and cooperation are really important here. [03:04] The problem with concepts of trust and cooperation [03:07] is that they are feelings, they are not instructions. [03:09] I can’t simply say to you, “Trust me,” and you will. [03:12] I can’t simply instruct two people to cooperate, and they will. [03:16] It’s not how it works. It’s a feeling. [03:18] So where does that feeling come from? [03:20] If you go back 50,000 years [03:22] to the Paleolithic era, [03:24] to the early days of Homo sapiens, [03:26] what we find is that the world [03:27] was filled with danger, [03:30] all of these forces working very, very hard to kill us. [03:34] Nothing personal. [03:36] Whether it was the weather, [03:38] lack of resources, [03:40] maybe a saber-toothed tiger, [03:41] all of these things working [03:43] to reduce our lifespan. [03:45] And so we evolved to social animals, [03:47] where we lived together and worked together [03:49] in what I call a circle of safety, inside the tribe, [03:52] where we felt like we belonged. [03:54] And when we felt safe amongst our own, [03:57] the natural reaction was trust and cooperation. [04:00] There are inherent benefits to this. [04:01] It means I can fall asleep at night [04:03] and trust that someone from within my tribe will watch for danger. [04:07] If we don’t trust each other, if I don’t trust you, [04:09] that means you won’t watch for danger. [04:11] Bad system of survival. [04:13] The modern day is exactly the same thing. [04:15] The world is filled with danger, [04:17] things that are trying to frustrate our lives [04:18] or reduce our success, [04:20] reduce our opportunity for success. [04:21] It could be the ups and downs in the economy, [04:24] the uncertainty of the stock market. [04:26] It could be a new technology that renders [04:28] your business model obsolete overnight. [04:30] Or it could be your competition [04:32] that is sometimes trying to kill you. [04:34] It’s sometimes trying to put you out of business, [04:36] but at the very minimum [04:37] is working hard to frustrate your growth [04:40] and steal your business from you. [04:42] We have no control over these forces. [04:44] These are a constant, [04:45] and they’re not going away. [04:47] The only variable are the conditions [04:49] inside the organization, [04:52] and that’s where leadership matters, [04:54] because it’s the leader that sets the tone. [04:56] When a leader makes the choice [04:59] to put the safety and lives [05:00] of the people inside the organization first, [05:03] to sacrifice their comforts and sacrifice [05:06] the tangible results, so that the people remain [05:09] and feel safe and feel like they belong, [05:11] remarkable things happen. [05:13] I was flying on a trip, [05:17] and I was witness to an incident [05:19] where a passenger attempted to board [05:21] before their number was called, [05:24] and I watched the gate agent [05:27] treat this man like he had broken the law, [05:29] like a criminal. [05:31] He was yelled at for attempting to board [05:32] one group too soon. [05:35] So I said something. [05:36] I said, “Why do you have treat us like cattle? [05:39] Why can’t you treat us like human beings?” [05:42] And is is exactly what she said to me. [05:44] She said, “Sir, if I don’t follow the rules, [05:47] I could get in trouble or lose my job.” [05:50] All she was telling me [05:51] is that she doesn’t feel safe. [05:53] All she was telling me is that [05:55] she doesn’t trust her leaders. [05:59] The reason we like flying Southwest Airlines [06:01] is not because they necessarily hire better people. [06:04] It’s because they don’t fear their leaders. [06:07] You see, if the conditions are wrong, [06:09] we are forced to expend our own time and energy [06:11] to protect ourselves from each other, [06:14] and that inherently weakens the organization. [06:17] When we feel safe inside the organization, [06:19] we will naturally combine our talents [06:21] and our strengths and work tirelessly [06:23] to face the dangers outside [06:25] and seize the opportunities. [06:28] The closest analogy I can give [06:29] to what a great leader is, is like being a parent. [06:33] If you think about what being a great parent is, [06:34] what do you want? What makes a great parent? [06:36] We want to give our child opportunities, [06:37] education, discipline them when necessary, [06:40] all so that they can grow up and achieve more [06:42] than we could for ourselves. [06:45] Great leaders want exactly the same thing. [06:47] They want to provide their people opportunity, [06:48] education, discipline when necessary, [06:50] build their self-confidence, give them the opportunity to try and fail, [06:53] all so that they could achieve more [06:55] than we could ever imagine for ourselves. [06:59] Charlie Kim, who’s the CEO of a company called Next Jump [07:02] in New York City, a tech company, [07:05] he makes the point that [07:06] if you had hard times in your family, [07:09] would you ever consider laying off one of your children? [07:12] We would never do it. [07:13] Then why do we consider laying off people [07:15] inside our organization? [07:17] Charlie implemented a policy [07:20] of lifetime employment. [07:21] If you get a job at Next Jump, [07:23] you cannot get fired for performance issues. [07:27] In fact, if you have issues, [07:29] they will coach you and they will give you support, [07:32] just like we would with one of our children [07:33] who happens to come home with a C from school. [07:36] It’s the complete opposite. [07:37] This is the reason so many people [07:38] have such a visceral hatred, anger, [07:43] at some of these banking CEOs [07:44] with their disproportionate salaries and bonus structures. [07:47] It’s not the numbers. [07:49] It’s that they have violated the very definition of leadership. [07:52] They have violated this deep-seated social contract. [07:55] We know that they allowed their people [07:57] to be sacrificed so they could protect their own interests, [07:59] or worse, they sacrificed their people [08:02] to protect their own interests. [08:04] This is what so offends us, not the numbers. [08:07] Would anybody be offended if we gave [08:08] a $150 million bonus to Gandhi? [08:11] How about a $250 million bonus to Mother Teresa? [08:14] Do we have an issue with that? None at all. [08:16] None at all. [08:18] Great leaders would never sacrifice [08:20] the people to save the numbers. [08:21] They would sooner sacrifice the numbers [08:23] to save the people. [08:26] Bob Chapman, who runs [08:28] a large manufacturing company in the Midwest [08:30] called Barry-Wehmiller, [08:33] in 2008 was hit very hard by the recession, [08:38] and they lost 30 percent of their orders overnight. [08:42] Now in a large manufacturing company, [08:43] this is a big deal, [08:45] and they could no longer afford their labor pool. [08:48] They needed to save 10 million dollars, [08:49] so, like so many companies today, [08:51] the board got together and discussed layoffs. [08:55] And Bob refused. [08:56] You see, Bob doesn’t believe in head counts. [09:01] Bob believes in heart counts, [09:04] and it’s much more difficult to simply reduce [09:07] the heart count. [09:08] And so they came up with a furlough program. [09:11] Every employee, from secretary to CEO, [09:13] was required to take four weeks of unpaid vacation. [09:17] They could take it any time they wanted, [09:19] and they did not have to take it consecutively. [09:22] But it was how Bob announced the program [09:23] that mattered so much. [09:25] He said, it’s better that we should all suffer a little [09:28] than any of us should have to suffer a lot, [09:30] and morale went up. [09:34] They saved 20 million dollars, [09:37] and most importantly, as would be expected, [09:39] when the people feel safe and protected by the leadership in the organization, [09:42] the natural reaction is to trust and cooperate. [09:45] And quite spontaneously, nobody expected, [09:47] people started trading with each other. [09:49] Those who could afford it more [09:51] would trade with those who could afford it less. [09:53] People would take five weeks [09:54] so that somebody else only had to take three. [09:59] Leadership is a choice. It is not a rank. [10:02] I know many people at the seniormost [10:03] levels of organizations [10:04] who are absolutely not leaders. [10:06] They are authorities, and we do what they say [10:09] because they have authority over us, [10:12] but we would not follow them. [10:13] And I know many people [10:15] who are at the bottoms of organizations [10:17] who have no authority [10:18] and they are absolutely leaders, [10:20] and this is because they have chosen to look after [10:22] the person to the left of them, [10:23] and they have chosen to look after [10:25] the person to the right of them. [10:27] This is what a leader is. [10:31] I heard a story [10:34] of some Marines [10:36] who were out in theater, [10:39] and as is the Marine custom, [10:41] the officer ate last, [10:44] and he let his men eat first, [10:47] and when they were done, [10:49] there was no food left for him. [10:53] And when they went back out in the field, [10:55] his men brought him some of their food [10:58] so that he may eat, [11:00] because that’s what happens. [11:02] We call them leaders because they go first. [11:05] We call them leaders because they take the risk [11:07] before anybody else does. [11:08] We call them leaders because they will choose [11:10] to sacrifice so that their people [11:12] may be safe and protected [11:14] and so their people may gain, [11:16] and when we do, the natural response [11:19] is that our people will sacrifice for us. [11:23] They will give us their blood and sweat and tears [11:25] to see that their leader’s vision comes to life, [11:29] and when we ask them, “Why would you do that? [11:31] Why would you give your blood and sweat and tears [11:34] for that person?” they all say the same thing: [11:38] “Because they would have done it for me.” [11:41] And isn’t that the organization [11:43] we would all like to work in? [11:45] Thank you very much. [11:48] Thank you. (Applause) [11:51] Thank you. (Applause)

[Return to Video 8.1]

11.3 Improving Intercultural Communication

[00:00] [instrumental music and bird calls] [00:14] Indigenous peoples thrived on the lands of present day Canada for thousands of years. [00:20] About 500 years ago, Europeans began to arrive. [00:24] By the 1900s, an explicit colonial agenda to control and assimilate [00:30] Indigenous peoples was in place. [00:33] The impacts of this are still felt today and show up as a larger burden [00:38] of ill health, loss of language and culture, [00:41] dislocation, and marginalization. [00:44] This history is part of Canada and we all share a responsibility for healing relationships. [00:52] How do we do this? [00:55] Creating an environment of cultural safety in health care settings is one step toward [01:01] healing this relationship. [01:04] [instrumental music] [01:11] Cultural safety is achieved when people of diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds feel [01:16] respected and safe from discrimination. [01:20] At Northern Health, our values include empathy, [01:23] respect, collaboration, and innovation. [01:28] When we put these values in action, we strive to [01:31] honour diversity, genuinely care, [01:34] and build trust through understanding. [01:38] Cultural safety grows when these values are applied to the context of cultural differences. [01:44] How can we do this? [01:46] By developing our cultural awareness, sensitivity, and competency through cultural humility. [01:54] Let’s take a look at the meaning of each of these terms. [01:58] [instrumental music] [02:03] Cultural humility is a lifelong journey of self-evaluation, reflection, and learning [02:10] to deepen our understanding of how our life experiences influence how we understand and [02:16] interact with others. The skills of self-reflection and assessment carry us [02:22] along a path of understanding and change. [02:26] The journey often starts with cultural awareness – recognizing that differences [02:32] and similarities exist between cultures. Learning about the histories that impact Indigenous [02:39] peoples in Canada is an important part of developing cultural awareness. [02:45] Cultural sensitivity grows when we start to see the influences of our own culture and [02:50] acknowledge that we have biases. [02:53] This can be an eye-opening experience, and it may take courage and humility to walk this path. [03:01] Cultural sensitivity is not about treating everyone the same. [03:06] With cultural awareness and sensitivity comes a responsibility to act respectfully. [03:13] Cultural competency is about developing practical skills for interacting [03:19] in respectful ways with people who are different from us. [03:22] It’s about reducing the number of assumptions we make about people based on our biases. [03:29] Cultural competency does not require us to become experts in cultures different from our own. [03:36] Cultural safety improves as we proceed along this path of self-reflection and learning. [03:44] The goal of culturally safe health care is that people feel respected [03:49] and safe from discrimination when they access health services. [03:54] As health care practitioners and service providers, we have an opportunity and a responsibility [04:01] to provide the best quality care possible to all individuals, [04:06] and this involves developing our cultural competence through humility. [04:11] Along this journey, we begin to understand and appreciate the gifts that each of us brings to the table. [04:19] Together, we can work to ensure that everyone is able to maintain their dignity [04:25] when they are seeking care and at their most vulnerable. [04:29] We can, as individuals and as organizations, [04:34] foster trusting and respectful relationships [04:37] between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people and communities. [04:43] So our journey begins. [04:46] [instrumental music and bird calls]

[Return to Video 11.3]


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Professional Communication Skills for Health Studies Copyright © 2023 by Chute, A., Johnston, S., & Pawliuk, B. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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