Attribution Statements and Copyright Notices

All Creative Commons licenses contain an attribution (BY) clause. This means that you must include a statement that gives credit to, or attributes, the creator of the work from whom you have borrowed, whether it’s text, an image, a video, or other item. If you have altered the work in any way, indicate that in your attribution statement.

Citation and Attribution: Is There a difference?

“Citation” and “attribution” are often used as synonyms, but they mean two different things.

Citation

Citation is a scholarly practice for tracking the ideological underpinnings of a work, usually referencing sources like published books, articles, government documents, primary sources, etc.

Note: If you are creating an adaptation, we suggest that you follow the citation style (APA, MLA, or Chicago, etc.) used by the original author to maintain consistency throughout the open textbook.

Attribution

Attribution is about crediting a copyright holder according to the terms of a copyright license.

How To Attribute Sources

The following is in accordance with recommendations by Creative Commons.

We recommend that you place attributions directly underneath a source, or at the bottom of each affected web page to leave content uncluttered following these best practices:

  • For images with corresponding figure numbers, clearly mark attributions at the bottom of a page with the heading: “Attributions” (see also, Adding Captions and Attributions to Images).
  • For video and audio, mark attributions at the bottom of the page with the heading: “Media Attributions.”
  • For text, include attributions under an “Attributions” heading or in a text box at the bottom of each chapter or web page.

Several attribution statements can be listed under these headings.

For each attribution, include the title of the work, author(s), and license type. Note any authors who adapted these works for your open textbook on the Book Info page, or as a Chapter Author at the bottom of the page when editing in Pressbooks.

Attribution Examples

Attributions

Figure 3.1 Green turtle 4 lekuan 1, siladen, indonesia by q phia licensed under CC-BY 2.0.

Figure 3.2 Rembrandt, The Night Watch, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam by Garrett Ziegler licensed under CC BY-NC-ND

Figure 3.3 Dog by David Locke licensed under a CC-BY 2.0.

Figure 3.4 Dog by David Locke licensed under a CC-BY 2.0. Modifications to this photo include cropping.

Figure 3.5 Toronto Rolling Mills is in the public domain and available from the Toronto Public Library (reference number JRR 1059).

[See also, Adding Captions and Attributions to Images]

Media Attributions

How to Create Inclusive and Accessible OER by Carl Abrc licensed under CC BY 4.0

Toads and frogs in pond, village, light distant chatter from villagers by Felix Blume licensed under CC0 1.0 Universal License

Contains materials from Attribute Open Content from Open.Michigan, and “Attribution Statements and Copyright Notices” in the Ryerson Open Textbook Authoring Guide by Ryerson University, each licensed under CC-BY 4.0.

License

Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

MacEwan Open Textbook Authoring Guide by MacEwan University Library is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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