All Creative Commons licenses contain an attribution (BY) clause. This means that you must include a statement that gives credit to, or attributes, the creator of the work from whom you have borrowed, whether it’s text, an image, a video, or other item. If you have altered the work in any way, indicate that in your attribution statement.
Citation and Attribution: Is There a difference?
“Citation” and “attribution” are often used as synonyms, but they mean two different things.
Citation is a scholarly practice for tracking the ideological underpinnings of a work, usually referencing sources like published books, articles, government documents, primary sources, etc.
Note: If you are creating an adaptation, we suggest that you follow the citation style (APA, MLA, or Chicago, etc.) used by the original author to maintain consistency throughout the open textbook.
Attribution is about crediting a copyright holder according to the terms of a copyright license.
How To Attribute Sources
We recommend that you place attributions directly underneath a source, or at the bottom of each affected web page to leave content uncluttered following these best practices:
- For images with corresponding figure numbers, clearly mark attributions at the bottom of a page with the heading: “Attributions” (see also, Adding Captions and Attributions to Images).
- For video and audio, mark attributions at the bottom of the page with the heading: “Media Attributions.”
- For text, include attributions under an “Attributions” heading or in a text box at the bottom of each chapter or web page.
Several attribution statements can be listed under these headings.
For each attribution, include the title of the work, author(s), and license type. Note any authors who adapted these works for your open textbook on the Book Info page, or as a Chapter Author at the bottom of the page when editing in Pressbooks.
Figure 3.2 Rembrandt, The Night Watch, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam by Garrett Ziegler licensed under CC BY-NC-ND
Figure 3.5 Toronto Rolling Mills is in the public domain and available from the Toronto Public Library (reference number JRR 1059).
[See also, Adding Captions and Attributions to Images]