5.2 Citing Sources in the Text of Your Paper
In accordance with the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2020), whenever you refer to information or data produced by someone else in a paper, you need to cite the original source in the text of your paper and in a reference list at the end so that the reader can follow up and learn more, while also giving credit to the author and avoiding accusations of plagiarism.
When you write information from someone else’s work out in your own words, also known as paraphrasing, the APA style requires that you cite the last name of the author followed by the year of publication within parentheses:
Or at the end of the information you have paraphrased within parentheses:
If you quote information exactly as it appears in a source that you are using, make sure to also include quotation marks and a page number:
Works With No Page Numbers
For works without page numbers, such as websites, provide the reader with some other way to locate the information you are quoting. This is commonly done by including a paragraph number:
Another option is to include a section heading:
In the case of works by two authors, type “and” between their last names if referred to within the text, or use the “&” symbol if the citation is within parentheses at the end of a sentence in your paper:
If a work has 3 or more authors, only cite the first author followed by “et al.” throughout the text of your paper:
Crediting Multiple Works
If you are citing two or more works by different authors that discuss the same topic or idea, list them in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author appearing on each work, and separate each one with a semicolon:
To cite information obtained through a personal communication, such as in a lecture or over email, list the author’s initials and last name followed by reference to a personal communication and the date on which the communication took place:
This type of citation occurs within the text of your paper, but is not included in your reference list at the end of the paper since this is not published information that a reader of your work could retrieve and explore further.