Chapter 1: Statistics, Data, and Data Presentation


This chapter introduces you to some basic terminology of statistics. Statistics is all about data. We briefly examine three fundamental data collection methods—sampling, designed experiments, and observational studies. We also show you how to classify data by type and choose the proper graphs to summarize different types of data.

Learning Objectives

As a result of completing this chapter, you will be able to do the following:

  • Tell what statistics is and how useful it is to solve real-life and work issues.
  • Identify the population and sample of a study.
  • Identify whether a study is descriptive or inferential.
  • Draw a simple random sample using the random-number table.
  • Distinguish designed experiments and observational studies.
  • Distinguish two types of data: quantitative and qualitative/categorical.
  • Describe qualitative/categorical data using pie charts and bar charts.
  • Describe quantitative data using stem-and-leaf.
  • Describe the shape of a histogram.


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